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Sleeping Disorders List and Diagnostic Codes

Conditions Include Insomnia, Parasomnias, and Breathing Disorders

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Updated June 09, 2014

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Sleeping Disorders List and Diagnostic Codes

Do you know how many conditions can interfere with sleep? Believe it or not, there are some 80 different types of sleep disorders. Sometimes it's helpful, from a psychological as well as a medical standpoint, to look at the long list of established sleep issues that may be affecting you. Browse this comprehensive list of sleeping disorders used by doctors, and you may wonder how you were ever able to get any rest at all! Diagnosis lists like this exist so that the appropriate medical codes can be applied for billing and health insurance purposes, but they also may help you label the problem that is disturbing your ability to sleep and feel refreshed.

Insomnias

Insomnia is defined as a difficulty falling or staying asleep or sleep that is simply not refreshing. It can occur for many reasons. It may be related to poor sleep habits or other medical conditions, including psychiatric problems and drug use. It may occur in children. There may not be a clearly identified cause. Insomnia is broken up into the following conditions:

Adjustment sleep disorder (acute insomnia) (307.41)
Psychophysiologic insomnia (307.42)
Paradoxical insomnia (formerly sleep state misperception) (307.42)
Idiopathic insomnia (307.42)
Insomnia due to mental disorder (307.42)
Inadequate sleep hygiene (V69.4)
Behavioral insomnia of childhood (307.42)
Sleep-onset association type
Limit-setting sleep type
Combined type
Insomnia due to drug or substance (292.85)
Insomnia due to medical condition (327.01)
Insomnia not due to a substance or known physiologic condition, unspecified (780.52)
Physiologic (organic) insomnia, unspecified; (organic insomnia, NOS) (327.00)

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Breathing can be profoundly disrupted during sleep. Sleep is a state of unconsciousness. While unconscious, it becomes difficult to keep the airway open and this may lead to conditions like sleep apnea. If the brain fails to initiate a breath, a problem called central sleep apnea may occur. If the airway collapses, it may be called obstructive sleep apnea. These problems may result due to problems present at birth, the anatomy of the airway, other medical problems, or the use of medications. The sleep-related breathing disorders include:

Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Primary central sleep apnea (327.21)
Central sleep apnea due to Cheyne Stokes breathing pattern (768.04)
Central sleep apnea due to high altitude periodic breathing (327.22)
Central sleep apnea due to a medical condition, not Cheyne-Stokes (327.27)
Central sleep apnea due to a drug or substance (327.29)
Primary sleep apnea of infancy (770.81)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Obstructive sleep apnea, adult (327.23)
Obstructive sleep apnea, pediatric (327.23)

Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemic Syndromes
Sleep-related nonobstructive alveolar hypoventilation, idiopathic (327.24)
Congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome (327.25)
Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to a Medical Condition
Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to pulmonary parenchymal or vascular pathology (327.26)
Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to lower airways obstruction (327.26)
Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to neuromuscular or chest wall disorders (327.26)

Other Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder
Sleep apnea or sleep-related breathing disorder, unspecified (320.20)

Hypersomnias of Central Origin

Excessive daytime sleepiness is called hypersomnia. This is most often due to a lack of sleep. However, it may also occur in conditions such as narcolepsy. It may be related to medication use or other health problems. There are also rare conditions that may manifest as excessive sleepiness. Hypersomnias that can be traced to the brain, or those of central origin, include:

Narcolepsy with cataplexy (347.01)
Narcolepsy without cataplexy (347.00)
Narcolepsy due to medical condition (347.10)
Narcolepsy, unspecified (347.00)
Recurrent hypersomnia (780.54)
Kleine-Levin syndrome (327.13)
Menstrual-related hypersomnia (327.13)
Idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time (327.11)
Idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (327.12)
Behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (307.44)
Hypersomnia due to medical condition (327.14)
Hypersomnia due to drug or substance (292.85)
Hypersomnia not due to a substance or known physiologic condition (327.15)
Physiologic (organic) hypersomnia, unspecified (organic hypersomnia, NOS) (327.10)

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

The body’s natural pattern of sleep and wakefulness is called the circadian rhythm. When this becomes disrupted or misaligned, it may result in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. The most common by far is jet lag. Teenagers may be afflicted with a delayed sleep phase. People who work late or overnight shifts may run into sleep problems. The circadian rhythm sleep disorders include:

Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, delayed sleep phase type (327.31)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, advanced sleep phase type (327.32)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, irregular sleep-wake type (327.33)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running (nonentrained) type (327.34)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, jet lag type (327.35)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, shift-work type (327.36)
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders due to medical disorder (327.39)
Other circadian rhythm sleep disorder (327.39)
Other circadian rhythm sleep disorder due to drug or substance (292.85)

Parasomnias

Parasomnias are typically abnormal sleep behaviors that can be associated with the two major types of sleep: non-REM and REM sleep. These may commonly afflict children, but many persist into adulthood. Some may be the harbinger of future disease, including the association between REM behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. They may be terrifying or dangerous, bizarre or commonplace. The conditions may be as common as nightmares or bedwetting. They may be linked to the use of medications or other health problems. These conditions include:

Disorders of Arousal (from Non-REM Sleep)
Confusional arousals (327.41)
Sleepwalking (307.46)
Sleep terrors (307.46)

Parasomnias Usually Associated with REM sleep
REM sleep behavior disorder (including parasomnia overlap disorder and status dissociatus) (327.42)
Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis (327.43)
Nightmare disorder (307.47)
Sleep-related dissociative disorders (300.15)
Sleep enuresis (788.36)
Sleep-related groaning (catathrenia) (327.49)
Exploding head syndrome (327.49)
Sleep-related hallucinations (368.16)
Sleep-related eating disorder (327.49)
Parasomnia, unspecified (227.40)
Parasomnia due to a drug or substance (292.85)
Parasomnia due to a medical condition (327.44)

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

There are a variety of conditions that result in movements that occur during or prior to the initiation of sleep. The most common afflictions include teeth grinding, leg cramps, restless legs syndrome, or periodic limb movements. In totality, the sleep-related movement disorders include:

Restless legs syndrome (including sleep-related growing pains) (333.49)
Periodic limb movement sleep disorder (327.51)
Sleep-related leg cramps (327.52)
Sleep-related bruxism (327.53)
Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder (327.59)
Sleep-related movement disorder, unspecified (327.59)
Sleep-related movement disorder due to drug or substance (327.59)
Sleep-related movement disorder due to medical condition (327.59)

Beyond the major classes of sleep disorders described above, there are a variety of conditions that are recognized to occur. These may or may not represent a pathological condition, and often they do not. There are also conditions that are associated with specific medication conditions. Moreover, some sleep disorders are clearly associated with psychiatric conditions. For completeness, these various sleep conditions are listed below:

Isolated Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

Long sleeper (307.49)
Short sleeper (307.49)
Snoring (786.09)
Sleeptalking (307.49)
Sleep starts, hypnic jerks (307.47)
Benign sleep myoclonus of infancy (781.01)
Hypnagogic foot tremor and alternating leg muscle activation during sleep (781.01)
Propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset (781.01)
Excessive fragmentary myoclonus (781.01)

Other Sleep Disorders

Other physiologic (organic) sleep disorder (327.8)
Other sleep disorder not due to a known substance of physiologic condition (327.8)
Environmental sleep disorder (307.48)

Sleep Disorders Associated with Conditions Classifiable Elsewhere

Fatal familial insomnia (046.8)
Fibromyalgia (729.1)
Sleep-related epilepsy (345)
Sleep-related headaches (784.0)
Sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux disease (530.1)
Sleep-related coronary artery ischemia (411.8)
Sleep-related abnormal swallowing, choking, or laryngospasm (787.2)

Other Psychiatric of Behavioral Disorders Commonly Encountered in the Differential Diagnosis of Sleep Disorders

Mood disorders
Anxiety disorders
Somatoform disorders
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
Personality disorders

If you believe that you may have a sleep disorder, you should speak with your primary care physician and consider seeing a sleep specialist to address your concerns.

Sources:

"The International Classification of Sleep Disorders." American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2nd edition, 2005.

Kryger, MH et al. "Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine." ExpertConsult, 5th edition, 2011, pp. 680-683.

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