RLS is very common among individuals suffering from end-stage kidney disease, especially those who are dependent upon dialysis. The incidence has been reported to range from 6 to 60 percent. It is unclear what may be contributing to RLS in this group. Anemia, iron deficiency, or even low parathyroid hormone levels may have a role based on various studies. In some cases, treating anemia with erythropoietin therapy or iron replacement has been effective.